lacks compassion for the self and others. Punishment is a judgment used to assign blame or penalties. Decades of psychological evidence show that reciprocating harm for a real or imagined crime is not a deterrent. Fear of punishment, generates the need for covert behaviors and actions.
A hyper-reactive “tough on crime position that favors punishment over rehabilitation, contributes to an overpopulated prison system with high rates of recidivism. Fifty to sixty percent of offenders have had at last one traumatic brain injury, and the relationship between poverty, trauma and neurocognitive impairment is well established. Comorbidity is quite common, especially the coincidence of substance use disorders and mental health and neurocognitive problems.